BE 8th sem CSE syllabus of RTM Nagpur University

88CS1: Distributed And Object Oriented Database Management

Distributed Databases:
Distributed Databases: What and Why? ; the Distributed Database Management Systems.

The Distributed Transparency – – the Reference Architecture for Distributed Databases, Data Fragmentation, Distributed Transparency for Read-Only and Applications, Distributed Database Access Primitives, Integrity Constraints in Distributed Databases.

Distributed Database Design:
Framework for Distributed Database Design, the Database Fragmentation Design, Allocation of Fragments. Translation of Global Queries to Fragment Queries
The Equivalence Transformation for Queries, Transforming Global Queries into Fragment Queries, Distributed Grouping and Aggregate Function Evaluation, Parametric Queries.

BE 7th sem CSE syllabus of RTM Nagpur University

77CS1: TCP / IP & Internet

Unit I:

Introduction and Overview. Comparison of OSI Model and TCP/IP model. Networking Technologies: LANS, WANS, Connecting Devices. Internetworking concept and Architectural model. Internet Backbones, NAP, ISP’s, RFC’s, Internet Standards.

Unit II:

Internet Addresses: IP address classes, subnet mask, CIDR, ARP,RARP, Internet Protocol, Routing IP Datagrams, ICMP and IGMP.

Unit III:

UDP, TCP, Sockets and socket Programming, Routing in Internet, Routing protocols- RIP, OSPF and BGP. Introduction to Multicasting and Multicast routing.

BE 8th sem IT syllabus of RTMNU (Nagpur university – Information Technology)

Distributed databases features – distributed database management systems – review of databases and nomputer n~tworks, levels of
distribution transparency. reference architecture, type of data fragmentation, distribution transparency for read only applications and update applications. distributed database access primitives and integrity constraints.

Distributed database design, a frame work for distributed database design, the design of database fragmentation, the allocation of
fragments. translation global queries to fragment queries, equiv~tlenpe ttansformation for queries. transforming global qUeries into
fragment queries. distributed grouping and aggregate function evaluation, parametric queries

BE 7th sem IT syllabus of RTMNU (Nagpur university – Information Technology)


Introduction: The use of computer networks, networks for companies, network for people, social issues. Network hardware. LAN’s, MAN’s, WAN’s, wireless networks, internetworks, network software, protocol hierarchies, design issues for layers, interfaces and services, connectionless oriented and connectionless services, service primitives, relationship of services to protocols, the OSI reference model, TCP/IP reference model, comparison of OSI and TCP/IP reference model, critique of OSI model & protocols, critique of TCP/IP reference model. Example networks – novel! Netware, ARPANET, NSFNET, the internet, SMDS, X.25 network, frame relay, network standardization – who’s who in the telecommunication world, who’s who in international standards world, who’s who in the internet standards world.

BE 6th sem IT syllabus of RTMNU (Nagpur university – Information Technology)


Unit 1:
8085 microprocessor, architecture, instruction set, addressing modes, memory organization & interfacing.

Assembly language programming using 8085, 8085 interrupts, 8255 PPL and its

8254 programmable timer, organization & interfacing with 80S5, 8279 keyboard & display, controller, organization & interfacing with 8085, analog & digital interfacing using 8255,keyboard/display interfacing using 8255 & 8279.

BE 5th sem IT syllabus of RTMNU (Nagpur university – Information Technology)


Unit 1:
Digital communications: introduction, digital radio, digital amplitude modulation, frequency shift keying, phase shift keying, quadrature amplitude modulation, Bandwidth efficiency, carrier recovery, Clock Recovery

Unit 2:
Probability random variables & stochastic, processes, review of probability theory random variables, probability density & distribution function, random. Processes, periodic processes, stationary. Processes, auto correlation cross correlation applications to signal analysis

BE 4th sem IT syllabus of RTMNU (Nagpur university – Information Technology)


Mathematical Logic and Set Theory: Statement and Notation, Negotiation, Conjunction, Disjunction, Tautologies, Truth tables, Basic concepts of set theory, Inclusion and equality of sets, The power set, Ordered pairs and n-tuples.

Relations and Functions: Relation and ordering, Properties of Binary Relations in a set Relation Matrix and the Graphs a Relation, Partition and Covering of a set. Equivalence relation, Partial ordering, Partially ordered set, Functions (definition and introduction), Composition of functions, Inverse functions, Characteristics function of a set.

Group Theory: Semigroups and Monoids(defininitions and examples), Homomorphism of semigroups and monomoids, Subsemi groups and submonoids, Groups(definitions and examples) Subgroups and Homomorphisms, Cosets and Lanranges theorem, Normal
subgroups, Codes and group codes.

BE 3rd sem IT syllabus of RTMNU (Nagpur university – Information Technology)


Meaning, Nature and Scope of managerial economics. Concepts used in managerial economics such as incremental concepts, Tinen perspective Discounting for time, Opportunity cost equimarginlism. Law of diminishing marginal utility,’ Methodology of managerial economics, Simulation.

Demand Analysis : Types of demand, Consumers and producers, Goods perishable and durable goods, Determinants of demand, determinants of demand, price, income and cross elasticity of demand, Methods of demands forecasting. ..

Theory of production, Production function, Firm and industry, Laws of returns, Input output analysis, Break even analysis, Cost concepts, Fix va6able average marginal and total cost, depreciation cost.

BE 6th sem CSE syllabus of RTM Nagpur University

66CS1: Design And Analysis Of Algorithms

UNIT – 1
Mathematical foundations, summation of arithmetic and geometric series, n, n2 , bounding summations using integration, recurrence relations, solutions of recurrence relations using technique of characteristic equation and generating functions, Complexity calculation of various standard functions, principles of designing algorithms

UNIT – 2
Asymptotic notations of analysis of algorithms, analyzing control structures, worst case and average case analysis, amortised analysis, application of amoterized analysis, Sorting networks, comparison networks, biotonic sorting network, advanced data structures like Fibonacci heap, disjoint set representation, red and black trees and their applications.

UNIT – 3
Divide and conquer basic strategy, binary search, quick sort, merge sort, matrix operations, Greedy method – basic strategy, application to job sequencing with deadlines problem, minimum cost spanning trees, single source shortest path

UNIT – 4
Dynamic Programming basic strategy, multistage graphs, all pairs shortest path, single source shortest paths, optimal binary search trees, traveling salesman problem, Maximum flow networks.

Basic Traversal and Search Techniques, breadth first search and depth first search, connected components. Backtracking basic strategy, 8-Queen’s problem, graph colouring, Hamiltonian cycles etc, Approximation algorithm and concepts based on approximation algorithms.

NP-hard and NP-complete problems, basic concepts, non-deterministic algorithms, NP-hard and NP-complete, decision and optimization problems, graph based problems on NP Principle, Computational Geometry, Approximation algorithm.

Text Books:
· Thomas H. Cormen “Introduction to Algorithms”, Prentice Hall of India.
· Design & Analysis of Computer Algorithms by Aho, Pearson education. Horowitz, Sahani, Rajsekharam,
· “Computer Algorithms”, Galgotia Publications Pvt. Ltd. Brassard, Bratley, “Fundamentals of Algorithms”, Prentice Hall

Reference Books:
· Computer Algorithms: Introduction to Design and analysis, 3rd Edition, By Sara Baase & A. V. Gelder Pearson Education.

66CS2: Database Management Systems

Database system concepts and Architecture – concept of relational database, Relational data model, Relational algebra, SQL-the relational database standard, introduction to PL/SQL

Database design theory – Functional dependencies and normalization, relational database design algorithms, practical database design and demoralization, Relational constants, programmatic ways for implementing constraints, triggers..

Physical database design – Concept of physical and logical hierarchy, storage structures like cluster, index organized table, partitions, various table storage parameters and block storage parameters, concept of index, B-trees, hash index, function index, bitmap index.

Process and memory management in database: Various types of tasks in database, database buffer management, log buffer management code reuse, concept of two tier and N-tier architecture, data dictionary and catalog information database
recovery technique. Aries Algorithm for recovery.

Query optimization and performance tuning – Various techniques for query optimization, strong and weak equivalence, cost base optimization, Use of different storage structures in query optimization.

Transaction Processing -Transaction and system concepts, Desirable properties of transaction, Schedules and recoverability, serializability of schedules, concurrency control, lockbase protocols and time stamp based protocols, read

· Fundamentals of Database Systems – Elmasiri ,Navathe & Gupta, Pearson Education.
· Database Systems by S. K. Singh, Pearson Education.
· Principles of Database Systems – Ullman, Golgotia Publications 1998.

Reference Books
· Database System Concepts by Henry Korth and Others
· Database Systems by Connolly,3rd edition, Pearson Education.

66CS3: Computer Networks

Unit I :
Uses of Computer Networks, Network Hardware:- LAN,WAN,MAN, Network Software-protocol hierarchies, design issues for layers, connection oriented and connection less services, service primitives, Services to protocol relationship.
Reference models- OSI and TCP/IP. Performance: Bandwidth and Latency, Delay X Bandwidth Product, High Speed Networks, Application Performance Needs.

Unit II :
Switching and MAC Layer: Packet Switching, Circuit Switching: Multiplexing: TDM FDM. Multiple Access: Random Access, Controlled Access, Channelization, LAN: Token Ring, FDDI, Ethernet- Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, Wireless LANs: IEEE 802.11.

Unit III :
Data Link Layer: Error Detection and Correction, Flow Control protocols, Error control protocols, HDLC, PPP.

Unit IV:
Network Layer: Routing Algorithms –Shortest path Algorithm, Flooding, Flow based routing, Distance vector routing, Link state routing, Hierarchical routing.
Congestion Control Algorithms: Leaky bucket algorithm, Token bucket algorithm. Congestion prevention Policies, Traffic shaping, Choke packets, Load Shedding, Jitter Control.

Unit V:
Transport Layer: The transport Service: Service Provided to upper layers, Transport Service primitives, Berkeley sockets, Elements of Transport protocols: Addressing, Connection establishment, Connection release, Flow control and buffering, Multiplexing, Crash recovery, Introduction to Internet Transport Protocols: Introduction to UDP, Remote procedure call, Introduction to TCP, Performance issues: Performance problems in Computer Network, Network performance measurement, System design for better performance, Fast TPDU processing., Protocols for Gigabit Networks.

Unit VI:
· Wide Area Networks: Packet switching principles, X.25, ATM and frame relay: ATM protocol Architecture, Cells, Cell format, Segmentation and reassembly in ATM, ATM adaptation Layer ¾, ATM adaptation Layer5;
· Introduction to Frame relay and frame relay protocol architecture.

Text Book:
· Computer Networks: 4th ed by Andrew. S. Tanenbaum, Pearson Education.
· Data Communications and Networks: 4thed by Behrouz A. Forouzan. Tata McGraw Hill Publication.
· Computer Networks: A systems approach by Larry L. Peterson and Bruce S. Davie, 3rd Edition, Morgan
Kaufmann Publishers.
· Data & Computer Communications: William Stallings, Sixth Edition, Pearson Education Asia.

Reference Book:
· Communication Networks: By Alberto Leon-Garcia & Indra Widjaja, 2nd Edition , McGraw Hill.

66CS4: Microprocessor & Interfacing
8085 based Microprocessor organization, 8085 Instruction set , Assembly language programming.

Memory & I/O organization, Address decoding, , Interrupts of 8085 , Basic timing diagram of 8085.

8085 Interfacing with 8255, Simple keyboard matrix interfacing with 8085, Interfacing of 7 segment LED with 8085, Introduction to DMA using HOLD/HLDA Signals.

8279 keyboard/display controller, Interfacing of Stepper motor with 8085.

8051 architecture, code/data memory interfacing, I/o interfacing, Address decoding logic, Interrupts.

Serial data communication, UART operation, 8051 Instruction set, assembly language programming.

· Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Applications with 8085/8080 A by R.S. Gaonkar, Wiley Eastern Ltd.
· The 8051 Microcontroller & Embedded Systems. By Mazidi & Mazidi, Pearson Education
· The 8051 Microcontroller, Architecture, programming & applications, second edition by K.J.Ayala, Penram
· Microcontrollers: Architecture, Programming, Interfacing & System design by Rajkamal, Pearson Education.
· The 8 bit microprocessor & Microcontroller by V.J. Vibhute.

66CS5: Software Engineering and Project Management

Unit 1
Software Engineeringan: Introduction Introduction to Software Engineering, Software Myths, Software Engineering-A Layered Technology, Software Process Framework, Software Process Models, The Waterfall Model, Incremental Process Models, Evolutionary Process Models, Specialized Process Models, The Unified Process Model, Agile Process Models.

Unit 2
Software Engineering Practice: An overview, Communication Practices, Planning Practices, Modeling Practices, Construction Practice & Deployment, System Engineering Hierarchy, Business Process Engineering, Product Engineering, System
Modeling, Requirements Engineering.

Unit 3:
Software Engineering Analysis & Design An overview, Requirements Analysis, Analysis Modeling Approaches, Data Modeling, Object-Oriented Analysis, Scenario-Based Modeling, Flow- Oriented Modeling, Class-based Modeling, Behavioral Model.
Design Engineering Concepts, Design Model, Pattern-Based Software Design.

Unit 4
Testing Strategies and Tactics An overview, Unit Testing, Integration Testing, Validation Testing, System Testing, Debugging. Software Testing Fundamentals, Black-Box Testing, White-Box Testing.

Unit 5
Product Metrics :An overview, Software Quality, A Framework for Product Metrics, Metrics for Analysis & Design Models, Metrics for Source Code, Metrics for Testing & Maintenance.

Unit 6
Software Project Management: An overview, Software Measurements, Metrics for Software Quality, Software Project Estimation Techniques, Project Scheduling, Risk Management, Quality Management, Change Management, Software Reengineering.

Text Book:
· Software Engineering- A Practitioner’s Approach (Sixth Edition)- Roger Pressman (TMH)

Reference Books:
· Software Engineering (Seventh Edition)- Ian Summerville, Pearson Education.
· Softeare Engineering Theory and Practice by Pfleeger, Pearson Education.
· Software Engineering- Schaum’s Series (TMH)

BE 5th sem CSE syllabus of RTM Nagpur university

55CS1: Data Communication

SIGNALS: ANALOG AND DIGITAL: Analog and digital data, Analog and digital signals; PERIODIC AND APERIODIC SIGNALS, ANALOG SIGNALS: Simple analog signals; TIME AND FREQUENCY DOMAINS; COMPOSITE SIGNALS: Frequency spectrum and Bandwidth; DIGITAL SIGNALS: Decomposition of digital signal; TRANSMISSION MODES: Serial and Parallel transmission, Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission, Simplex,
Half-Duplex and Full-Duplex communication.

ENCODING AND MODULATING: DIGITAL-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION: Unipolar, Polar, Bipolar; ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION: Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), Pulse Code Modulation (PCM), Sampling Rate, How many Bits per Sample? Bit rate;
DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERSION: Aspects of Digital-to-Analog conversion, Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), Phase shift Keying (PSK), Quadrature Amplitude modulation (QAM), Bit / Baud comparison; ANALOG-TO-ANALOG CONVERSION: amplitude modulation (AM), Frequency Modulation (FM), Phase Modulation(PM);

INTERFACES AND MODEMS: DIGITAL DATA TRANSMISSION: Parallel transmission, Serial Transmission; DTEDCE INTERFACE: Data Terminal Equipment (DTE), Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment (DEC), Standards, EIA-232 Interface; OTHER INTERFACE STANDARDS: EIA-449, EIA-530, X.21; MODEMS: Transmission rate, Modem
standards; 56K MODEMS: Traditional Modems, 56K Modems

COMMUNICATION MEDIA: GUIDED MEDIA: Twisted pair cable, Coaxial cable, Optical Fiber cable; UNGUIDED MEDIA: Radio frequency allocation, Propagation of Radio waves, Terrestrial microwave, Satellite communication, Cellular Telephony; TRANSMISSION IMPAIRMENTS: Attenuation, Distortion, Noise; PERFORMANCE: throughput, Propagation Speed, Propagation time;


DATA COMPRESSION: Huffman code, Run-Length Encoding, Relative Encoding, Lempel-Ziv Encoding, Image Compression, JPEG, MPEG

Text Books:
Data Communications and Networking by Behrouz A. Forouzan, 4thEdition, Tata McGraw Hill Understanding Data Communications and Networks by William A. Shay, 2nd Edition, Vikas Publishing House.

Reference Book:
Electronic communication Systems by Kennedy.
Communication systems by Singh and Sapre.
Data communication by Fred Halsall, Pearson Education.

5CS2: Numerical Computing
Unit 1
Polynomial Equations: Newton-Raphson method, Regula Falsi Method, Muller method, Bairstow method, Multipoint iteration method, Convergence / Rate of Convergence of iterative method, Evaluation of Multiple & complex roots. Simultaneous equations.

Unit 2
Linear Systems & Matrrices: Gauss elimination with pivoting, Gauss-Seidal iteration, Triangularization / Cholesky methos, Iterative determination of Eigen values.
Unit 3
Interpolation & Approximation: Lagrange’s bivariate interpolation, Least
squares approximation, Uniform approximation, Rational Approximation, Hermite Interpolation. Differentiation /Integration: Double integrals by Trapezoidal & Simpson rule, Methods of undetermined coefficients for numerical integration, Gauss0Legendre, Gauss-Hermite formula, Romberg Integration, Approximation of derivates, Richardson’s Extrapolation.

Unit 4
Differential Equations: Initial value problems by Euler’s method, Picard’s, Taylor series, Runge-Kutta methods, Predictor-Corrector methods, Boundary value problems (Second order) by finite difference methods.

Unit 5
Related topics: Simplex method for linear programming problems, Errors & Methods of error analysis.

Text Books:
· Numerical methods for Scientific and Engg. Computations by M.K. Jain, SRK Iyengar, R. K. Jain , Wiley Eastern Ltd.
· Numerical methods for Science & Engg. By Stanton R. G., PHI
· Introductory Methods of Numerical Analysis by Sastry S. S., PHI.

55CS3: Object Oriented Methodologies

The Object Oriented Paradigm What is Object Orientation? , What is Object Oriented Development? , The Object Oriented Themes; The Object modeling
Technique (OMT).Object Modeling Objects and Classes; Links and Associations; Advanced Links and Associations Concepts; Generalization and Inheritance;
Grouping Constructs; A Sample Object Model. Advanced Object Modeling Aggregation; Abstract and Concrete Classes; Generalization as Extension and Restriction; Multiple Inheritance; Metadata; Candidate Keys.

Dynamic Modeling Events and States; Operations; Nested State Diagrams; Concurrency of States; Advanced Dynamic Modeling Concepts; A Sample Dynamic Model; Relation of Dynamic Model to Object Model. Functional Modeling The Functional Model; the Data Flow Diagrams (DFD); Properties of DFD; Construction of DFD; Specifying Operations; Constraints; A Sample Functional Model; Relationship between the Object, Dynamic and the Functional Models.

Pre-Analysis The need for Pre-Analysis; Pre-Analysis Steps: Interviews, Questionnaire, Observation, Documentation and Notations; the Bus Stop Problem Domain Example. Analysis: The Analysis Overview; the Problem Statement; the ATM
example; Object Modeling in ATM; Dynamic Modeling in A TM; Functional Modeling in A TM; Adding Operations; Iterating Analysis; Recording Analysis.

Design How does Design differ from Analysis? The Logical and Physical Design; Qualities and Objectives of Analysis and Design; Measurable Objectives in Design; Planning for Design.System Design Overview of System Design; Breaking
System into Subsystems; Identifying Concurrency; Allocating Subsystems to Processors and Tasks; Managing Data Stores; Handling Global Resources; Choosing Software Control Implementation; Handling Boundary Conditions; Setting
Trade-Off Priorities; Common Architectural Frameworks; the Architecture of A TM System.

The object design paradigm: Overview of Object Design; Class Specifications; Interfaces; Criteria for Good Design; Designing Algorithms; Design Optimization; Implementation of Control; Adjustment of Inheritance; Design of Associations; Integrity Constraints; Object Representations; Physical Packaging; Documenting Design Decisions.

The Human Computer Interaction What is Human Computer Interaction? , Qualities of Good User Interface; Approaches to User Interface Design; the Standards and Legal requirements. The Programming Style The Object-Oriented Style; Extensibility and Robustness; Programming-in-the-Large; Late Binding and Early Binding. Reusable Components What is meant by Reuse? , Why Reuse? ,Planning Strategy for Reuse; the Reusability approaches. Software Development Methodologies The Method and the Methodology; Why use Methodology?, the Unified Software Development Process; Participative Design Approaches; Issues in Choosing Methodology; Hard Vs Soft Methodologies.

(Practical Implementation in “C++” )

· Object Oriented Modeling and Design; James Rumbaugh, Michael Blaha, Pearson Education

· Object Oriented System Analysis and Design using UML; Second Edition; Simon Bennett, Steve McRobb, Ray Farmer; Tata McGraw Hill; 2004.
· Object Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications; Second Edition; Grady Booch; Pearson Education.
· Object Oriented Analysis and Design; Andrew Haigh; Tata McGraw Hill; 2001.

55CS4: Operating Systems
Introduction: Evolution of OS, Types of OS, Basic h/w support necessary for modern operating systems, services provided by OS, system programs and system calls, system design and implementation.

File systems: File concept, Access methods, Disk space management and space allocation strategies, directory structures, Recovery, Log-structured File System, disk arm scheduling strategies.

Scheduling: Process concept, process control block, Types of scheduler, context switch, threads, multithreading model, goals of scheduling and different scheduling algorithms, examples from WINDOWS 2000 & LINUX.

Memory management: Contiguous allocation, Relocation, Paging, Segmentation, Segmentation with paging, demand paging , page faults and instruction restart , page replacement algorithms , working sets , Locality, Thrashing,Garbage
Collection .

Process cooperation and synchronization: Concurrency conditions, Critical section problem, software and hardware solution, semaphores, conditional critical regions and monitors, classical inter process communication problems.

Deadlocks & Protection: Deadlock definition, Prevention, Avoidance, Detection and recovery, Goals of Protection, access matrix, implementation, Security problem.


· Operating System concepts – Silberchatz & Galvin, Addison Wesley, 6th Edn.
· Modern Operating Systems – Tanenbaum, Pearson Edn. 2nd edn.

Reference Books:
· Operating System –Milan Milenkovik
· Operating Systems, 3rd Edition by Gary Nutt, Pearson Education

55CS5: Concept In Programming Language
Definition of Programming language, Implementation of high-level languages,Data elements, binding time, binding identifiers to names, binding of attributes,Binding time. Concept of r-value and l-value and their implementation. Effect of Environment on a language, Language paradigms. Language translation issues.

Data type, Type checking and type conversion, elements of specification and implementation of data type. Implementation of elementary data types: integer, real, character, Boolean Pointer, enumerated type Implementation of structured data types. Vectors & arrays, Sets, Files.

Abstract data type, encapsulation. Implementation of new data types, Subprogram definition and activation, their Implementation, parameter passing methods, generic subprograms, Scope rules

Type equivalence, type definitions with parameters, Implementation of Inheritance. Storage management issues like static and dynamic allocation , stack based allocation and management, Heap based allocation and management.

Sequence control, Implicit and explicit sequence control, Sequencing with arithmetic expression, Sequence control between statements, prime programs, implementation of case statement,

Subprogram sequence control, recursive and non recursive subprogram . Data control, referring environment, dynamic and static scope, static chain implementation and display implementation.

· Programming Languages, 1st edition by T.W. Pratt and M .V. Zelkowitz & T. V. Gopal by Pearson Education, 2006
· Programming Languages, Ravi Sethi, Addison Wesley.

55CS6: System Programming
IBM 360/370 & Assembler– Introduction to System Programming & its components, M/c Architecture , Data Formats & Register Formats , Concept of assembler, design of single pass and two pass assembler.

Microprocessor- Concept of macro, macro call within macro, macro definition within macro, recursive macro calls, design of macro processor.

UNIT 3 :
Linker and Loader- Concept of static and dynamic relocation, external symbols, design of linker, design of object file for different loading schemes.

Common Object file format & System Utilities- Structure of object file and executable file, section or segment headers, symbol table, concept of storage class, string various, data types line insert, character, arrays structures. Source code control system, make, link editor, symbolic debugger.

Unix Device Drivers- Definition , Anatomy and Types , Device programming, Installation , Incorporation of driver routines, Basic device driver operation, Implementation with Line Printer & Disk ,Comparative study between device
drivers for UNIX & Windows.

Compiler- Phases of Compilers ,Overview of Databases and Algorithms required for all phases. Role of lexical analyzer, recognition of tokens, Study of LEX & YACC.

· System Programming- J. J. Donovan.
· System Programming and Operating systems- D. M. Dhamdhere
· Unix system Utilities manual.
· Unix programming Environment- Keringham and Pike, Pearson Education
· Unix Device Drivers- George Pajari , Pearson Education.